Prime Editing Technology and Its Prospects for Future Applications in Plant Biology Research
Md. Mahmudul Hassan, Guoliang Yuan, Jin-Gui Chen, Gerald A. Tuskan, and Xiaohan Yang
26 June 2020, BioDesign Research 2020: article 935095; https://doi.org/10.34133/2020/9350905
Many applications in plant biology requires editing genomes accurately including correcting point mutations, incorporation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and introduction of multinucleotide insertion/deletions (indels) into a predetermined position in the genome. These types of modifications are possible using existing genome-editing technologies such as the CRISPR-Cas systems, which require induction of double-stranded breaks in the target DNA site and the supply of a donor DNA molecule that contains the desired edit sequence. However, low frequency of homologous recombination in plants and difficulty of delivering the donor DNA molecules make this process extremely inefficient. Another kind of technology known as base editing can perform precise editing; however, only certain types of modifications can be obtained, e.g., C/G-to-T/A and A/T-to-G/C. Recently, a new type of genome-editing technology, referred to as “prime editing,” has been developed, which can achieve various types of editing such as any base-to-base conversion, including both transitions (C→T, G→A, A→G, and T→C) and transversion mutations (C→A, C→G, G→C, G→T, A→C, A→T, T→A, and T→G), as well as small indels without the requirement for inducing double-stranded break in the DNA. Because prime editing has wide flexibility to achieve different types of edits in the genome, it holds a great potential for developing superior crops for various purposes, such as increasing yield, providing resistance to various abiotic and biotic stresses, and improving quality of plant product. In this review, we describe the prime editing technology and discuss its limitations and potential applications in plant biology research.