Precision Genome Editing in Plants Using Gene Targeting and Prime Editing: Existing and Emerging Strategies
Md Mahmudul Hassan, Guoliang Yuan, Yang Liu, Mobashwer Alam, Carrie A. Eckert, Gerald A. Tuskan, John F. Golz, Xiaohan Yang
29 June 2022, Biotechnology Journal; https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.202100673
Precise modification of plant genomes, such as seamless insertion, deletion, or replacement of DNA sequences at a predefined site, is a challenging task. Gene targeting (GT) and prime editing are currently the best approaches for this purpose. However, these techniques are inefficient in plants, which limits their applications for crop breeding programs. Recently, substantial developments have been made to improve the efficiency of these techniques in plants. Several strategies, such as RNA donor templating, chemically modified donor DNA template, and tandem-repeat homology-directed repair, are aimed at improving GT. Additionally, improved prime editing gRNA design, use of engineered reverse transcriptase enzymes, and splitting prime editing components have improved the efficacy of prime editing in plants. These emerging strategies and existing technologies are reviewed along with various perspectives on their future improvement and the development of robust precision genome editing technologies for plants.
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