New insights into ectomycorrhizal symbiosis evolution and function
Claire Veneault-Fourrey and Francis Martin
22 August 2013, in Agricultural Applications: The Mycota Volume 11, 2013, pp 273-293; doi: 10.1007/978-3-645-36821-9_10
Boreal and temperate forest ecosystems rely on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis for tree nutrition, productivity, and stress resilience. The ECM lifestyle appears several times during fungal evolution. In this chapter, we will consider how comparative genomics has changed and specified our understanding of the evolution of the ECM symbiosis lifestyle within the fungal kingdom and the rhizospheric zoo. During development of ECM symbiosis, only a few plant defense responses are triggered. In this chapter, we will consider which strategies (molecules, factors) ECM fungi developed in order to avoid plant immune system detection. We will in particular highlight the roles of cell wall remodeling enzymes and symbiosis effectors displaying similarities to those of plant pathogens. Understanding of the biology of ectomycorrhizal fungi is important to inform models of sustainable forest management and to improve the productivity of tree plantations in marginal soils. Thus, the chapter will conclude with eco-biotechnological applications of ECM symbiosis in forestry and bioremediation.
Veneault-Fourrey C., Martin F. (2013) 10 New Insights into Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution and Function. In: Kempken F. (eds) Agricultural Applications. The Mycota (A Comprehensive Treatise on Fungi as Experimental Systems for Basic and Applied Research), vol 11. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg